Reading Two

-The Hacker Manifesto-

This manifesto is much more than what I initially expected it to be. It's a surprisingly broad piece that talks about societies and their evolution, and points out some of the problems that have changed throughout history but but overall remain the same, specifically the separation between the ruling class and the working class.

The following part was especially interesting to me, because it specifies what is production, which is quite crucial not only for an artist, but for any type of expression:

08. Production produces all things, and all producers of things. Production produces not only the object of the production process, but also the producer as subject. Hacking is the production of production. The hack produces a production of a new kind, which has as its result a singular and unique product, and a singular and unique producer. Every hacker is at one and the same time producer and product of the hack, and emerges in its singularity as the memory of the hack as process.

09. Production takes place on the basis of a prior hack which gives to production its formal, social, repeatable and reproducible form. Every production is a hack formalised and repeated on the basis of its representation. To produce is to repeat; to hack, to differentiate.

Basically, this says that "hacking" is the true originality, creativity, and the only form of novel creation. "Hacking is the product of production" says that hacking is a higher achievement of production. Memory of the hack results in a process, a formalized and repeatable action, which is established in paragraph 9. Hacking is the useful and desired form of progress. Production is just a repetition and not a true creation.

There are other parts that deserve highlighting. I also found very interesting how he describes the way the "working class" always tries to catch up with the ruling class, but the ruling class passes on to something new and else: from land ownership and peasants, on to capital ownership e.g. factories and workers, to the information ownership with patents and copyrights.